During the day your skin is exposed to dirt and pollution. Many people use cleansers together with a toner and moisturizer as a part of their skin care regime. In normal cases If you have a dry skin a natural aloe Vera soap the trick of keeping your skin smooth and moisturized . Tree tee oil soap is good for oily skin, especially when you have pimples and black heads. When you cleanse your face rinse your face with warm and not hot water. Remember to massage your face as you cleanse. wet your skin. Apply soap or cleanser to your hands, add warm water and work into lather. Massage gently. Rinse thoroughly. Gently pat dry. If you wear a cream foundation or base during the day , use a cleanser and toner at night and only use soap in the morning . If you have dry skin, use a cream cleanser. If you have an oily skin use a form or gel cleanser.
If you have an ultra-sensitive skin use a gentle cleanser. It may be a good idea to select a cleanser that is alcohol free if you have dry, sensitive or dehydrated skin. Normal skin has a correct balance of moisture and oils. It is slightly acidic at a pH of 4.5-5.75. A variety of harmless bacteria and yeasts live in low numbers on the skin surface, and may help protect your skin from infection.
Sensitive skin is skin that stings easily, especially during or just after cleansing. Sensitive skin is more likely to be dry and is hyper-reactive, Using a cleanser is considered a better alternative because it is formulated to do the job . Bar soap has a high pH and skin's natural pH is 5.5. This means that soap can change the balance present in the skin to favor the overgrowth of some types of bacteria, exacerbating acne. Bar cleansers in general, soap or not, have thickeners that allow them to assume a bar shape can clog pores, leading to acne . More over using bar soap on the face can remove natural oils from the skin that form a barrier against water loss. Cleanse twice a day, no more. Unless you have exposed your skin to excessive dust, grime or pollution, twice-a-day cleansing is more than adequate for any skin type. Cleansing too often strips your skin of precious natural oils. Not cleansing regularly, particularly before you retire for the night, may lead to build-up and eruptions.
Some cleansers may incorporate fragrance or essential oils. However, for some people, these cleansers may irritate the skin and often provoke allergic responses. People with such sensitivity should find cleansers that are PH balanced, contain few irritants, suit many variating skin types and ones that don't make the skin feel dehydrated directly after cleansing. 'Tight' and uncomfortable feeling skin is often dehydrated, it may also appear shiny after cleansing, even when no sebum is present. This is due to the tightening and 'stripping' effect some cleaners can have on the skin. Never continue use of a cleanser that upsets the balance of the skin, as cleansers should work with the skin, not against it. A trial and error approach may be wise.
Different types of Cleansers
Soaps and cleansing bars:
They are derived from fatty acids and tri-glycerides (fats and oils).
Deodorant or anti-microbicidal bars
These have an added anti-bacterial agent to eradicate bacteria. These soaps have a pH between 9 – 10 and may cause skin irritation. They are good for oily skin.
These have moisturising agents like lanolin or glycerin. Their pH is between 5 – 7, thus they are non-irritant. They are good for dry skin.
Functions: Soaps help cleansing, perfume the bath, softens the water, forms lather and gives the skin a cool and fresh feeling.
Lipid-free cleansers are liquid products that clean without fats. They are applied to dry or moistened skin, rubbed to produce lather, and rinsed or wiped away. These products may contain water, glycerin, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol, sodium laurel sulfate, and (occasionally) propylene glycol.
Lipid-free cleansers leave behind a thin, moisturizing film and can be used effectively to remove facial cosmetics and dirt in persons with sensitive or dermatitic skin. Lipid-free cleansers cause less cutaneous irritation in photoaged skin than other cleansers. However, propylene glycol can cause stinging, and sodium laurel sulfate is a detergent.
Cleansing creams are applied to the face both to clean and to moisturize. They are composed of water, mineral oil, petrolatum, and waxes. The classic cream for facial cleansing is known as cold cream. Cold creams combine the effect of a lipid solvent, such as beeswax and mineral oil, with detergent action from borax, also known as decahydrate of sodium tetraborate. These products are popular to remove cosmetics and to provide cleansing for patients with dry skin.
It is a water based product and is good for normal and dry skin. Since it is water based,it can be easily rinsed with water. It is commonly sold as pore cleanser.
Help in removing dead cells (stratum corneum cells) from the skin.
They aid in removing dead cells and control excess sebum secretion. They are mechanical exfoliants made of granules in form of Aluminum oxide, ground fruit pits etc.
Cleansing masks / packs:
Setting masks – containing Fuller's earth
Peel-off masks – containing gel and latex.
Non-setting masks – containing cold cream or oil packs.
Body washes are a special subset of liquid synthetic detergents that combine mild skin cleansing with moisturizing and emollient qualities. They are applied with a puff that does not support bacterial growth to break the emulsion through the incorporation of generous amounts of air and water. High amounts of petrolatum can be incorporated in body wash emulsions to improve skin dryness and hydration
Cleansers may contain
•Water to remove water-soluble (hydrophilic) components of dirt.
•A mixture of detergents or surfactants (surface-active agents) to remove oil-soluble (lipophilic) dirt, by loosening particles from the skin surface. Surfactants often have an electrical charge:
•Anionic (negatively charged) surfactants to foam (lather) such as sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium laureth sulphate and sodium sulphosuccinate. Anionic surfactants rinse off easily.
•Cationic (positively charged) surfactants include trimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride.
•Amphoteric surfactants are both negatively and positively charged to leave a pleasant sensation on the skin and reduce the irritant action of anionic surfactants. An example is cocamido propyl betaine; betaines are derived from sugar beet.
•Non-ionic surfactants include polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and acyl-polyglycoside (APG).
•Moisturisers to replace skin oils and retain moisture in the skin.
•Fragrances to provide a pleasant smell.
•Preservatives to prolong shelf-life and prevent mould.
•Colours, humectants, thickeners and solvents such as glycerine to improve texture and appearance.
•Biocides (antiseptics) such as triclosan and para-chloro-meta-xylenol (PCMX), to reduce bacterial count on the skin. They can reduce body odour and help certain skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and acne. These products, depending upon their formulation and application, may also kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause intestinal illnesses and other community infections. But there is concern that common household use may increase resistant organisms and actually make such infections more likely and more serious,
•Scrubs i.e. abrasive substances to smooth out rough skin (face) or remove stubborn dirt (industrial hand cleansers).
•Antioxidants, vitamins and alphahydroxy acids (fruit acids) to smooth skin and reduce photoaging changes.
•Botanicals to soothe, heal, moisturise, for their astringent properties or to act as natural antiseptics.
•Exfoliating (peeling), keratolytic (skin-dissolving) or comedolytic (whitehead-removing) additives such as salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide to reduce acne.
•Contact urticaria (immediate redness, itching and swelling) may arise due to fragrance, preservative or benzoyl peroxide.
•Some formulas are comedogenic (clog the pores), aggravating acne.
•Scrubbing may break open comedones (blocked pores) forming inflamed acne pimples.
•Applying a thick moisturiser to compensate for dryness could also aggravate acne.
•Allergic contact dermatitis (a delayed but persistent reaction) may develop to a component of the cleanser. Because they are rinsed off, true contact allergy to soaps and cleansers is rare. However it may result from:
•Botanicals, such as chamomile, lavender and rose oil
•Preservatives, such as Kathon CG or quaternium-15
•Fragrances, such as hydroxycitronellal or oak moss
•Emollients, such as wool alcohol (lanolin)
•Rosin, a sticky substance is some transparent bar soaps
•Protein contact dermatitis, a rare mixture of contact urticaria and allergic dermatitis, due to a protein component such as peanut or oatmeal.
trioxide, sulphuric acid and ethylene oxide, are used to produce the hydrophilic end of the surfactant molecule.
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